Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence. – References.

Campbell, J. 2017. Baltimore Sun. Confronting the myths of ‘Napalm Girl’. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 19 May 2017]

Mccoy, D. 2015. Animal Cognition. What’s the importance of Homo naledi? [Online]. Available at:  [Accessed 19 May 2017]

Mitchell, P. 2017. Chron. What is socialization of the internet. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 21 May 2017]

No Bullying. 2017. The Top Six Unforgettable CyberBullying Cases Ever. [Online]. Available at:  [Accessed 20 May 2017]

Peterson, H. 2013. Mail Online. ‘Catfishing:’ The phenomenon of Internet scammers who fabricate online identities and entire social circles to trick people into romantic relationships. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2017]

Randolph-Quinney, P. 2015. A new star rising: Biology and mortuary behaviour of Homo naledi. Biology and mortuary behaviour of Homo naledi, 4(1): 1 – 4. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 19 May 2017]

Shreeve, J. 2015. National Geographic. This Face Changes the Human Story. But How? [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 19 May 2017]

Wicks, J. 2016. News24. Another ‘racist’ Facebook rant over crowded Durban beach. [Online]. Available at:  [Accessed 20 May 2017]


Question 9

Digital commerce is the electronic selling and buying of goods. (Ribble, 2011)
Which four e-Commerce models are represented in the graphic above? What is unique about each of these e-Commerce business models?

B2B – Business to business (Sales between businesses)

B2C – Business to Customer (Sales from a business to a customer)

C2C – Customer to Customer (Sales between customers)

C2B – Customer to Business (Sales from the customer to a business)


*********All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence.

Question 8

Digital Health and Well Being (mark: 8)
Navigate to you will use this tool to curate content on this topic. You will have to create an account on this site. Create a board and pins at least 15 topics related to digital health to your board. Post your link using the board as an image to you blog.

The site 

********All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence.

Question 7

Create a blog entry in which you warn fellow students about the hazards of online activity and provide guidelines on online safety.

The top 5 cyber-security risks.


The Internet of Things

Insecure Passwords


Cyber theft

Here are some Cyber-security tips.

Don’t give out personal information

Don’t reply to spam emails (or any inappropriate messages).

Don’t accept friend requests from people you do not know.

Never meet an online stranger in person

Never give out passwords

Don’t post inappropriate content and pictures. (That half naked photo might look great but the pervert next door doesn’t need to see it).

Do not visit questionable sites.


*******All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence.

Question 6

Digital Law

What is digital socialisation? How can social media change communities and their practices and traditions?
What ethical issues could arise as a result of digital socialisation?

6.1. Digital socialisation is how people communicate online, and in which ways they choose to communicate. It is “the customs, quirks and language unique to a particular culture” (Mitchell. 2017).

Social media brings people from all different cultures together and it helps people learn about other cultures and challenge the norms. It is both good and bad. Traditions are being done away with and a little bit of history is being lost, but people are still growing from what they learn.


6.2. Cultures and religions are being debunked and mocked. Traditions are being thrown out. People are feeling less free when they speak their opinion.


******All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence. – Digital Bill of Rights.

Question 5

Digital Rights and Responsibilities
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 General Assembly resolution 217(III) A as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected.
Study the bill of rights and draw up a Digital Bill of Rights that has 10 articles. Create a blog entry titled Digital Bill of Rights.

Article 1.

All digital citizens are equal in dignity and rights and should act towards one another as they would like to be acted upon.

Article 2.

“Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration” (UDHR. 1948)

Article 3.

Everyone has the right to security of their sites and searches.

Article 4.

No one shall be hacked and held at ransom of information.

Article 5.

No one shall be harassed or bullied.

Article 6

Everyone has a right to their beliefs or non-beliefs and shall not be deprived of said beliefs or non-beliefs.

Article 7.

Everyone has the right to own a domain and shall not be deprived of said domain.

Article 8.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought.

Article 9.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.

Article 10.

Everyone has the right to join a group and no one may be coerced into joining a group they do not wish.


*****All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence.

Question 4

Digital Etiquette
Some problems that have emerged from a lack of digital etiquette are cyberbullying, identity theft, hacking or corrupting other people’s computers and invading people’s privacy. There are people in the world who do not know how to act using technology, especially the internet, in a way that is polite and safe towards others. In this activity you will address issues of inappropriate behaviour, and its consequences for individuals and society.
Create a Blog entry in which you write an article that addresses issues of inappropriate behaviour, what the consequences of these could have on an individual’s online reputation and the broader context of society. Give real life examples as evidence for your article.
Minimum requirements for your blog entry:
 Length: approximately 500 words
 Make use of creative commons images
 Provide real examples of inappropriate behaviour and the impact this can have on the individual’s online reputation as well as the negative impact it may have in the broader context of society
 Provide a short list for guiding your audience in online etiquette
 Give references

Inappropriate behaviour online could be called many things. Catfishing, cyber bullying, abuse, just being a terrible human being… the list goes on.

Catfishing is the act or creating a fictitious social media account in order to fool people for nefarious reasons. Pedophiles do it to lure children, men do it to lure other men into online ‘relationships’ for money, women do it to get back at their exes. There are so many reasons why people do it, and none of them are right. In 2010, a documentary was released called Catfish, in which the show explains how “28-year-old Nev Schulman fell in love with a gorgeous young woman’s Facebook profile and her voice over the phone – both of which turned out to belong to a middle-aged wife and mother” (Peterson. 2013). In more severe cases people have been known to get arrested and sued for identity theft.



Cyber bullying has become the new way for children to bully their classmates, or for people in general to bully other people because ‘they can’. For example in 2012 sixteen year old Amanda Todd committed suicide over an incident where a man she had met online blackmailed her and stalked her (No Bullying. 2017). The man was not found.




Racism is also big online. One case in particular happened last year on Facebook over the overcrowding on the Durban beaches. A man from Sandton wrote some really derogatory comments about how the beach must have smelled and then proceeded to insult people who replied to his comment (Wicks. 2016). He has since been sued by the ANC youth league for crimen injuria (a wilful injury to someone’s dignity, caused by the use of obscene or racially offensive language or gestures).

Here are a few tips on how not to be inappropriate online:

  • Don’t use offensive language;
  • Don’t pretend to be someone else;
  • Don’t distribute illegal material;
  • Don’t harass someone online (or in person);
  • Always gain permission when sharing images;



Peterson, H. 2013. Mail Online. ‘Catfishing:’ The phenomenon of Internet scammers who fabricate online identities and entire social circles to trick people into romantic relationships. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2017]

No Bullying. 2017. The Top Six Unforgettable CyberBullying Cases Ever. [Online]. Available at:  [Accessed 20 May 2017]
Wicks, J. 2016. News24. Another ‘racist’ Facebook rant over crowded Durban beach. [Online]. Available at:  [Accessed 20 May 2017]

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence. “Napalm girl”

Question 3


The image above taken in 1972 is an authentic picture of an incident during the Vietnamese war. The “Napalm-Girl” post was marred with a lot of controversy because of the nudity of the girl which is seen by some critics as a violation of best practice. Refer to the inappropriate communication and media fluency section under learning unit 3 in the manual.

In your opinion do you think this image is inappropriate given the context? Justify your argument.
 Use a minimum of200 words.
 Create a post titled “Napalm-Girl”

‘Napalm Girl’ is an iconic photo, by photographer Nick Ut, taken during the time of the Vietnam War. The question was ‘in the context, do I think the photo is inappropriate’? And my answer is no. The photo was taken in a time of great stress and many think it helped sway the public against the war and that it helped quicken the wars end. And although these myths have been debunked there is still the opinion that the photo has an emotional impact, which for me is true. The photo highlights one of the tragedies that happened in the Vietnamese war. The photo shows the horror and pain that not only children went through, but adults as well. It depicts a scene that the world needed to see. The horrors of a war. It didn’t matter that although it was thought to be an American attack and was actually a South Vietnamese air force pilot, the point is to show how bad the war was and the impact it had on humans. The girl in the photo, Kim Phuc, was nine at the time and she survived with horrible scarring to her body and she wasn’t the only one. Many people died, many people were injured and scarred for life, and the world needed to see that.


***All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence

Question 2

Digital Literacy and Information Fluency
Use information fluency skills to analyse the ground-breaking archaeological findings (Homo Naledi) by Professor Lee Berger from Wits University. Use the information fluency process, ask, acquire, analyse, apply and assess to dissect the matter. In your discussion highlight the significance of this finding:
 Use a minimum of 300 words
 Create a separate page for your findings on the blog

Homo Naledi. Homo (any of a genus (Homo) of hominids that includes modern humans (H. sapiens) and several extinct related species), Naledi (star in Sesotho. A homage to where the bones were found).

Homo Naledi is a new species of human, discovered in September 2013 in the Rising Star cave system in the Cradle of Humankind. Paleoanthropologist Lee Berger, of Wits University, and his team discovered “about 300 numbered bone specimens” (Randolph-Quinney. 2015) in a chamber of the Rising Star cave system. Homo naledi appears to be primitive compared to its distant cousin homo sapien. It had a small brain, ape-like shoulders, and modern hands but with curved fingers, “skinny longbones (indicating a slender stature), a primitive Lucy-like hip” (Mccoy. 2015), and feet that are in no way similar to that of a human. They also had teeth that had some human-like features (molar surfaces) but also with some primitive features (premolar roots) (Mccoy. 2015).

The scattering of the bones in the cave seem to indicate some kind of ritualistic burial. “Disposal of the dead brings closure for the living, confers respect on the departed, or abets their transition to the next life.” (Shreeve. 2015). These traits are traits of humanity, and as Berger has stated, Homo naledi was not human, which makes these actions all the more interesting.

Scientists interpret this discovery to indicate human evolution from non-humans. If this is found to be true, all previous notions of human ancestry will be overturned. And we as humans will question where we came from and how mankind has evolved through time.

**All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.

Digital Citizenship – Portfolio of Evidence.

Question 1

Digital Access
In this activity you are going to conduct a survey to research and report on the access that students on your campus have to the internet.
1 Design a five-question survey on the type and availability of access to the Internet and how students would rate their level of skill in using the particular technology.
 The target audience for your survey is students studying on your campus.
 You can create the survey with any software – just as long as the participants can complete it electronically (preferably online). Survey Monkey and Google Forms are free online survey tools that you can use.
2 Get at least 30 students to complete your survey.
3 Collate the data using MS Excel.
4 Present the feedback/responses in a graph.
5 Interpret and create a presentation on your findings (using MS PowerPoint or Prezi). Your presentation must include your survey questions, the response graph and answer the following questions:
 What did the survey show in terms of accessibility?
 Did all students surveyed have access to the Internet outside of campus?
 If so, what was the most common means of access?
 If not, why do you think this is the case?
 Did socio-economic factors play a role in your findings?
 Did everyone have the same level of skill in using technology?
 Was there a correlation between the level of access available and skills?
 Create a blog entry titled Digital Access, provide a link to the online survey, and attach the graphs and PowerPoint presentation.

*All references to be shown in the 10th post of my portfolio.